History of hanoi

Since the founding of the country, Ha Noi has been a critical area. For more than a thousand years, Ha Noi was the centre of all resistance movements against northern aggressors to secure the independence of the Vietnamese nation.

Twenty-three centuries ago, Co Loa (now part of Dong Anh District) was the capital of Thuc An Duong Vuong's country of Au Lac. With a favorable topography and position at the centre of the Red River Delta, Ha Noi progressively developed into a major settlement. In the fall of 1010, Ly Cong Uan (the founder of the Ly Dynasty) moved the capital from Hoa Lu to Dai La Citadel.

One day, Emperor Ly saw a golden dragon emerging from the waters of the Red River, near what is now Ha Noi. Interpreting this fact as a good omen, the Emperor ordered that the name of Dai La be changed to Thang Long (ascending dragon). The year 1010 was a historic year for Ha Noi as well as for the whole country.

Throughout the Ly, Tran and Le Dynasties, Thang Long developed into a strong capital with hundreds of palaces, royal residences, magnificent pagodas and temples. Buddhism and Confucianism developed strongly. The Temple of literature-Royal College (Van Mieu – Quoc Tu Giam), Viet Nam's first University, was built (1076) and thousands of  talented scholars came here for training. Thang Long witnessed many glorious victories in the resistance against aggressors; the most symbolic of which were the three successive victories against the Nguyen – Mong army in 1258, 1285, and 1288.

Despite its changing names (Thang Long, Dong Do, Dong Kinh, and Ha Noi (1831), the capital has been the heart of the country for almost a thousand years.



(The establishment and development of Ha Noi)

208 BC

An Duong Vuong chose Co Loa as his capital.

2 BC – 4 AD

The capital belonged to Giao Chi District (under the Chinese Domination).

454 – 456 AD

Establishment of Tong Binh District – including Ha Noi now (under the Chinese Domination).


Ly Nam De fixed his capital at Long Bien and built a citadel along the To Lich River.


Cao Bien built Dai La Citadel.


Ly Thai To moved the capital to Dai La and named it Thang Long.


Ho Qui Ly renamed the capital Dong Do.


Le Loi renamed the capital Dong Kinh.


Minh Mang established Ha Noi Province.


The President of the French Republic issued a decree establishing the City of Ha Noi.

6 Jan 1946

Election of the National Assembly. The National Assembly elected Ha Noi as the capital of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam (DRVN).

2 July 1976

After the reunification of the country, the National Assembly chose Ha Noi as the capital of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam (SRVN).

Older articles